The Mafia Archipelago with only about 40 000 inhabitants is scattered over the Indian Ocean 21 km off the Rufiji River Delta in central Tanzania and 160 kilometres from Zanzibar. The largest of a score of islands, atolls and tidal sandbars, Mafia itself is approximately 50 km long by 15km across, and is surrounded by a barrier reef teeming with marine life. Almost half the coastline of Mafia, some 822km², has been gazetted a marine park by the Government. To date over 50 genera of corals, more than 460 species of fish and five different species of turtles have been recorded in the waters around Chole Bay. The islands natural vegetation is extremely varied from palm-wooden grassland to rainforest to tidal mangroves. A series of reed lined lakes in central Mafia are home to small number of hippo which were first recorded in 1895. It is thought they may have crossed from the mainland or were washed to the island by floods of the Rufiji river system. Mafia is an island locked in a time warp of the early 20th Century and is a fascinating and ideal destination for lovers of nature and the outdoors.